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Gender, Race, and Class
Ball, Arnetha, and Ted Lardner. "Dispositions Toward Language: Teacher Constructs of Knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English Case." CCC 48.4 (December 1997): 469–85.
The 1979 Ann Arbor case ruled that teachers' language attitudes impeded children's literacy learning; however, the court's ruling left pedagogical issues unresolved. One strategy, to inform teachers about sociolinguistics, does not necessarily translate into classroom practice. The authors outline three constructs of teacher knowledge that help to explain the gaps between knowledge and practice: teacher as technician, teacher knowledge as lore, and teacher efficacy. Teachers' attitudes toward racially inflected language cannot be addressed adequately by knowledge constructs that emphasize either a technical or lore-based approach. Teacher efficacy, on the other hand, emphasizes affect and the "emotional tone of classroom interactions." Efficacy begins with a knowledge base of linguistic diversity and cultural discourse patterns but must extend into an understanding of pedagogical theory within a wider sociocultural context. Braddock Award winner.
Barnett, Timothy. "Reading 'Whiteness' in English Studies." College English 63.1 (September 2000): 9–37.
As leaders in reading, writing, and literacy training, English studies should better historicize its difficulties with multicultural education, and should more vigorously promote the understanding of race as a construct of language and culture rather than as a result of biology. Engaging more fully with the concept of whiteness (in a broader sense, that "whiteness" as an essentialist notion of race) is the first step in this direction. Discourses on whiteness should be read and rewritten in order to foster stronger ties between academic work and social justice. A look at the development of basic and multicultural education at the Universities of Washington and Michigan in the 1960s and 1970s exemplify the type of exploration needed.
Bauer, Dale. "The Other 'F' Word: The Feminist in the Classroom." CE 52 (April 1990): 385–96.
Students frequently attack a teacher's feminist perspective as something personal that does not belong in the classroom. Indeed, students do not wish to acknowledge any value contradictions in their academic work. Feminist teachers should recognize that teaching these students will be a form of persuasion, in which they need to adopt an authoritative but not authoritarian position in setting the course's ethical agenda. They should not reject all forms of authority as patriarchal. Moreover, in seeking to persuade students to feminism, teachers should aim to provoke not only resistance to sexism but also identification (in Kenneth Burke's sense) with feminism's egalitarian vision of the social order. In short, feminist teachers should see themselves as rhetors and aim to develop a feminist rhetoric.
See: Linda Brodkey, "On the Subjects of Class and Gender in 'The Literacy Letters' " .
See: Miriam Brody, Manly Writing: Gender, Rhetoric, and the Rise of Composition .
Brueggemann, Brenda Jo et al., "Becoming Visible: Lessons in Disability." CCC 52.3 (Feb. 2001): 368–98.
Increased awareness of disability reveals, for both teachers and students of composition, the harmful constructions of ability, difference, and normalcy that pervade higher education and society in general. Because differences in ability resemble differences in race, class, gender, and ethnicity insofar as they have the potential to generate learning, compositionists are in a unique position to disrupt accepted notions about disability. By introducing disability texts, by allowing for a multi-modal classroom, and by considering disability within a cultural context rather than just a medical one, composition teachers can make disability visible, and can challenge such binaries as normal/not normal and us/them.
Canagarajah, A. Suresh. "Safe Houses in the Contact Zone: Coping Strategies of African-American Students in the Academy." CCC 48.2 (May 1997): 173–96.
First-year ethnic minority students construct and use "safe houses" to negotiate between their vernacular discourses and academic conventions. In a networked classroom organized around argumentative writing, African American students began the course by practicing traditional topic-centered argumentation but later used person-centered and topic-associated argumentation to reframe classroom matters, to celebrate their ethnic solidarity, and to practice acts of "fronting" characterized by vernacular discourses, parody, and subtle messages to outsiders. These strategies helped to develop meta-pedagogical awareness and prepared students to move into the public sites of the contact zone. If teachers become ethnographers and examine their own locations, the safe house can become a pedagogically significant site, integral to the contact zone.
Catano, James V. "The Rhetoric of Masculinity: Origins, Institutions, and the Myth of the Self-Made Man." CE 52 (April 1990): 421–36.
The myth of self-making is powerful because it provides identities that seem to fit naturally into the requirements of society. The myth errs in equating masculine growth with an escape from origins—sex, race, and class—and from institutions. In the American tradition of individualism, fulfillment comes from applying the virtues of perseverance, loyalty, and so on, virtues that are supposedly not dependent on origins or institutions. The very egalitarianism of this appeal masks social reality, for it is, of course, easier to gain personal fulfillment when supported by the institutions one supposedly spurns. Twentieth century versions of the myth substitute prowess in corporations for independence from institutions but retain the dichotomy between male identity as self-contained and female identity as interpersonal. In composition pedagogy, the rhetoric of authentic, expressive prose embodies the myth of self-making. Its goal is to free the writer to experience a true self. Ken Macrorie , Peter Elbow [175, 397], and William Coles , although they reject masculine self-aggression, use traditionally masculine images to define the personae of their self-made teachers and writers, call upon the Emersonian tradition of individualism, and seek freedom from institutions rather than Freirean confrontation with them.
Degenaro, William. "Class Consciousness and the Junior College Movement: Creating a Docile Workforce." JAC 21.3 (2001): 499–520.
The archives of the development and growth of two-year colleges in the early twentieth century reveal a rich narrative of contradiction, diversity, and class consciousness that should provide an historical context for understanding, and possibly undoing, problematic educational practices, such as gatekeeping. The elite scholars who led the junior college movement were motivated in part by the desire to rid prestigious American universities of the masses, in order to more closely approximate the German research model of a university. Discipline and assessment (in the form of intelligence and personality tests), as well as training in taste, civics, and lawfulness, were used to transform junior college students into members of the middle-class—though only ideologically, not materially. Movement leaders were also influenced by philosophical trends of the time, such as scientization and social efficiency. Rather than delivering on the promise to prepare students to transfer to four-year colleges and universities (a promise which turned out to be little more than a marketing ploy aimed at students and their parents), junior colleges created poorly respected campuses and a passive working class.
Delpit, Lisa. Other People's Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. New York: New Press, 1995.
Progressive educational movements, in the name of liberation from oppression, often silence and exclude minority voices. For example, writing process advocates assume that black students need to develop fluency rather than technical skills while many black parents and educators want direct instruction in the "culture of power." White middle-class teachers and parents often use indirect communication in order to deemphasize power; however, not all children have access to the same codes. Children accustomed to more direct instruction and to more authoritative figures will struggle to understand the rules of (white) classroom culture. In this collection of nine articles and essays, Delpit offers ways of appreciating linguistic diversity, shares her research on schooling in multilingual Papua New Guinea, and outlines teacher education for a multicultural society.
Enos, Theresa. Gender Roles and Faculty Lives in Rhetoric and Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1996.
Results of a national study of college writing teachers illustrate the variety of experiences writing faculty have had with gender and disciplinary bias in rhetoric and composition and in English departments. Respondents to a survey were invited to share narrative accounts in addition to statistical data; follow-ups to the questionnaires included informal interviews and campus visits as well as other invited stories. Topics include nontraditional careers, glass ceilings, and tenure cases. Enos argues for broadening the definition of intellectual work in rhetoric and composition and suggests ways in which her study can direct change.
Fleckenstein, Kristie S. "Bodysigns: A Biorhetoric for Change." JAC 21.4 (2001): 761–90.
Biorhetoric, or a discourse of bodysigns, can arm one to meet the challenges of transformative teaching and thinking. Transformation must encompass three aspects: a way of seeing that enables recognition of the status quo as constructed through rules and the enactment of those rules, a way of speaking that enables the use of language in ways that surpass representation, and a way of living that enables change. A discourse of bodysigns focuses on the inextricable connection between materiality and semiosis, on the point at which the material and the semiotic blur. Biorhetoric makes transformation possible because it provides a double way of seeing, speaking, and living—a perspective that can recognize the material-semiotic nature of both the status quo and change. The work of feminist writing teachers demonstrates the idea of double vision, while a paradigm shift in science illustrates the effect of double speaking. A teaching and writing narrative serves as the site where double being occurs when the boundaries of the who, what, and how of a student-teacher exchange blur.
Flynn, Elizabeth A. "Composing as a Woman." CCC 39 (December 1988): 423–35. Rpt. in Perl .
The work of Nancy Chodorow on differences between male and female children's relations to their mothers, of Carol Gilligan on female moral development, and of Mary Field Belenky and her colleagues on female intellectual development all suggest that women value collaboration and organize knowledge in networks, whereas men value individual achievement and organize knowledge hierarchically. These differences are reflected in the writing of first-year college students. Material on gender should be included in the composition course so that women students will be encouraged to compose in ways congenial to their gender rather than in the male ways traditionally followed in the academy.
Frank, Francine, and Paula A. Wattman. Treichler, et al. Language, Gender, and Professional Writing: Theoretical Approaches and Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage. New York: MLA, 1989.
Six essays on language and sexual equality are followed by a set of guidelines with full analysis and explanation of problems and ambiguities. The essays review work on gender and language, give a history of male-chauvinist influences in linguistics, and call for changing sexist language to foster feminist social goals. Essays include Sally McConnell-Ginet, "The Sexual (Re)Production of Meaning: A Discourse-Based Theory"; Paula Treichler, "From Discourse to Dictionary: How Sexist Meanings Are Authorized"; and Susan Wolfe, "The Reconstruction of Word Meanings: A Review of the Scholarship." Extensive bibliography and annotated list of suggestions for further reading.
Gannett, Cinthia. Gender and the Journal. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1992.
For centuries, women have written journals and diaries to explore their sense of self and to maintain their social networks, although these texts, unlike many men's journals, were never intended for publication. More recently, journal writing has become an accepted part of composition pedagogy because it is seen as fostering pre-writing processes. Social constructionist theory has also supported journal writing through the idea that discourse is constitutive of identity. Expressive writing in journals thus becomes an important way to learn and grow. Feminist theory supports journal writing as a way for women muted by society to come to voice. Research shows that women students are often more comfortable with journal writing and write more than men. Nevertheless, academics remain uneasy with the expressive, personal aspects of journal writing and tend to emphasize its academic function. Journal writing should be treated more seriously as literature and not marginalized.
Gibson, Michelle, Martha Marinara, and Deborah Meem. "Bi, Butch, and Bar-Dyke: Pedagogical Performances of Class, Gender, and Sexuality." CCC 52.1 (September 2000): 69–95.
Compositionists who wish to create classrooms that critique traditional academic power structures must do more than incorporate readings on class, race, gender, and sexuality. The inclusion model does not adequately challenge the centrality of white middle-class male heterosexuality. Academic discussions of race, class, and gender downplay the political aspects of identity performance, and remain informed by essentialist identity politics. Narratives of the ways in which three writing teachers perform gender, class, and sexual identity illustrate how academic assumptions can be disrupted.
Gilyard, Keith, ed. Race, Rhetoric, and Composition. Portsmouth, N.H.: Boynton/Cook, 1999.
A collection of nine essays that critically examine race and discourses of race and identity in rhetoric and composition. Essays include Malea Powell, "Blood and Scholarship: One Mixed Blood's Story"; Meta G. Carstarphen, "News-Surfing the Race Question: Of Bell Curves, Words, and Rhetorical Metaphors"; Anissa Janine Wardi, "Terrorists, Madmen, and Religious Fanatics?: Revisiting Orientalism and Racist Rhetoric"; Keith Gilyard, "Higher Learning: Composition's Racialized Reflection"; David G. Holmes, "Fighting Back by Writing Black: Beyond Racially Reductive Composition Theory"; Amy Goodburn, "Racing (Erasing) White Privilege in Teacher/Research Writing about Race"; Robert D. Murray, Jr., "Power, Conflict, and Contact: Re-Constructing Authority in the Classroom"; Brad Peters, "Coming to Voice: 'Anger Disguised and Complex, not Anger Simple and Open' "; Gail Okawa, "Removing Masks: Confronting Graceful Evasion and Bad Habits in a Graduate English Class."
Hesford, Wendy. Framing Identities: Autobiography and the Politics of Pedagogy. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1999.
More than an expressionistic inquiry into one's hidden, essential, or true self, autobiographical acts—be they written texts, speech acts, visual forms, or symbolic gestures—are social, contradictory, and ideologically encoded acts of self-representation. Historically marginalized groups can use autobiography to refuse the identities imposed upon them by dominant groups. However, autobiography is not automatically an empowering tool. An understanding of the ways in which power is claimed, negotiated, and resisted through autobiography is necessary. In order to justify the attention to the personal in the classroom, and to move beyond na•ve politics of identity, self-reflections must be integrated with cultural, material, and rhetorical analysis.
See: Karyn Hollis, "Liberating Voices" .
hooks, bell. Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black. Boston: South End Press, 1989.
hooks describes her experiences challenging race, gender, and class barriers to higher education. She analyzes the intersections of race, gender, and class oppressions and articulates a pedagogy to deal with them.
See: Jennifer Horsman, Something in My Mind besides the Everyday .
Howard, Rebecca Moore. "Sexuality, Textuality: The Cultural Work of Plagiarism." College English 62.4 (March 2000): 473–91.
The discourse of plagiarism is laden with gendered, sexualized metaphors of weakness, collaboration, disease, adultery, rape, and property. These metaphors connote a sense of sexual as well as textual violation. The term plagiarism, therefore, does as much (or more) cultural work as pedagogical; it regulates sexuality (insisting on compulsory heterosexuality) and student bodies as well as textuality and student papers. However, the metaphors that construct the term plagiarism are not the real problem; the term itself is, and should therefore be abandoned. Instead, we should concern ourselves with fraud, insufficient citation, and excessive repetition—pedagogical concerns rather than moral or sexual issues.
See: Daphne A. Jameson, "Using a Simulation to Teach Intercultural Communication in Business Communication Courses" .
Jarratt, Susan C., and Lynn Worsham. Feminism and Composition Studies: In Other Words. New York: MLA, 1998.
An introduction and afterword, thirteen essays, and six responses contribute to a growing dialogue between feminism and composition across discourses, pedagogies, alliances, and discontinuities. Essays include Laura Brady, "The Reproduction of Othering"; Shirley Wilson Logan, " 'When and Where I Enter': Race, Gender, and Composition Studies"; Pamela L. Caughie, "Let It Pass: Changing the Subject, Once Again"; Christy Desmet, "Equivalent Students, Equitable Classrooms"; Min-Zhan Lu, "Reading and Writing Differences: The Problematic of Experience"; Gail Stygall, "Women and Language in the Collaborative Writing Classroom"; and Harriet Malinowitz, "A Feminist Critique of Writing in the Disciplines." Response essays by Suzanne Clark, Ellen M. Gil-Gomez, Lisa Ede and Andrea Lunsford, and others.
Kirsch, Gesa. Women Writing in the Academy: Audience, Authority, and Transformation. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1993.
Interviews with thirty-five women (twenty students and fifteen faculty members) in five academic disciplines suggest that even successful academic writers struggle to maintain confidence in their own authorial authority. Authority issues can become more salient for women in the higher academic ranks because these women often feel both greater freedom and greater need to challenge disciplinary boundaries and conventional discourse forms. Women should continue to push for more collaborative academic work and more acceptance of a personal dimension in scholarly writing.
Kirsch, Gesa E., and Joy S. Ritchie. "Beyond the Personal: Theorizing a Politics of Location in Composition Research." CCC 46 (February 1995): 7–29.
Feminist scholarship has helped to validate personal experience as a source of knowledge in composition research. It is not enough, though, to locate ourselves in our research. To do so risks creating the kind of master narrative that feminism rejects because it silences other views. Rather, the feminist researcher should trace her personal views to their cultural and ideological sources, recognize her multiple and contradictory locations, and use the positions of others to gain critical insight into her own. Specifically, these ends can be served by research practices in which those being studied collaborate with the researcher in designing and interpreting the research. Even so, the researcher, although she cannot avoid being in a position of power, should be sensitive to abuse of power, such as soliciting overly personal information or editing out testimony that supports values different from her own. Ethical issues are critical in such research.
Kraemer, Don J., Jr. "Gender and the Autobiographical Essay: A Critical Extension of the Research." CCC 43 (1992): 323–40.
Much research suggests that men write personal narratives in which they are heroic agents struggling for independent achievement. Women's narratives, in contrast, depict the protagonist as one agent among several struggling to forge connections or sort out competing loyalties. Although student writers cannot set aside these gendered discourses, neither are their narratives wholly determined by them. Rather, most personal narratives show authors shaping a complex identity and negotiating among a range of discourses, the events of personal history, and classroom demands. We should read, and encourage students to read, personal narratives with an eye to the complexities, not just the stereotypes.
Lamb, Catherine E. "Beyond Argument in Feminist Composition." CCC 42 (February 1991): 11–24.
Monologic argument, in which an author seeks to establish the correctness of his or her view by knocking down all other views, is the dominant form of scholarly writing, a form uncongenial to women, who value relationships and negotiate responsibilities. But monologic argument cannot simply be replaced by autobiography as a preferred form. Women's very concern for others will motivate them to use persuasive power to rectify injustice, although without violence. More collaborative forms of argument are needed, however, in which the parties negotiate a resolution by exploring each other's needs in detail, brainstorming multiple solutions, and discussing alternatives to find a mutually agreeable resolution. Such forms of dealing with conflict, beneficial to both men and women, can be modeled in the composition class.
See: Andrea Lunsford, ed. Reclaiming Rhetorica .
Lyons, Scott Richard. "Rhetorical Sovereignty: What Do American Indians Want from Writing?" CCC 50 (1999): 447–68.
For American Indians, the end goal of literacy can be described as rhetorical sovereignty—as peoples' inherent right and ability to determine their own communicative needs and desires. While the field of composition and rhetoric has exhibited increased interest in American Indian and Native knowledge and voice, some of the literature expressing that interest has contained Indian stereotypes and cultural appropriations, and has excluded any discourse on sovereignty, a central concept in Indian discourse. Such literature actually hinders rhetorical sovereignty, which demands a radical rethinking of what gets taught as the written word. In the interest of rhetorical sovereignty, canons and curricula need to expand; specifically, graduate and writing programs might start by examining American Indian rhetoric, taking treaties and federal laws as rhetorical texts.
Malinowitz, Harriet. Textual Orientations: Lesbian and Gay Students and the Making of Discourse Communities. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1994.
Gay, lesbian, and bisexual students continue to face a deeply homophobic environment in writing classes, making assignments to reflect on the self, narrate personal events, or otherwise reveal the writer's subjectivity highly problematic. The field of composition needs to recognize the existence of lesbian and gay discourses and discourse communities and allow these students to explore the social construction of their identities. Lesbian and gay students in gay-themed writing courses find that sexual identity is a significant epistemological context and social location. They discover the history and thematics of their community, analyze the ways that "gay" and "straight" have been constructed and valued in dominant discourses; excavate social meanings that underlie mainstream attitudes, complicating the very idea of sexual identity; and escape the disenfranchising individualism that confines them in mainstream views of sexual identity. The theories of social construction and critical pedagogy facilitate this understanding and allow further investigation of complex cross-cultural community definitions with similarly disabling mainstream constructions.
Parks, Steven. Class Politics: The Movement for the Students' Right to Their Own Language. Urbana, Ill.: NCTE, 2000.
The CCCC 1974 resolution of the Students' Right to Their Own Language (SRTOL) represents much more than a moment in the history of the discipline. When considered in conjunction with the political and social organizations and movements of the time, such as the civil rights movement, Black Power, and anti-Vietnam protests, the SRTOL brings to light the importance of collective action by academics. The SRTOL exemplifies both the possibilities and difficulties of progressive coalition politics; and its history can be read as a guide for new university-community alliances and community-based pedagogy.
Phelps, Louise Wetherbee, and Janet Emig, eds. Feminine Principles and Women's Experience in American Composition and Rhetoric. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1995.
Fourteen essays explore many aspects of women's work as teachers and writers, including Patricia Bizzell, "Praising Folly: Constructing a Postmodern Rhetorical Authority as a Woman"; Lillian Bridwell-Bowles, "Discourse and Diversity: Experimental Writing within the Academy"; Robert Connors, "Women's Reclamation of Rhetoric in Nineteenth-Century America"; Mary Kay Crouch, with Son Kim Vo, "The Role of Vietnamese Women in Literacy Processes: An Interview"; Janice Hays, "Intellectual Parenting and a Developmental Feminist Pedagogy of Writing"; Sara Dalmas Jonsberg, with Maria Salgado and the Women of the Next Step, "Composing the Multiple Self: Teen Mothers Rewrite Their Roles"; Louise Wetherbee Phelps, "Becoming a Warrior: Lessons of the Feminist Workplace"; and Nancy Sommers, "Between the Drafts." In addition, six essays comment on the previous fourteen, identifying recurring themes, significant omissions, and directions for further study.
Prendergast, Catherine. "Race: The Absent Presence in Composition Studies." CCC 50.1 (September 1998): 36–53.
Heath's Ways with Words forms a point of departure for this analysis of the ways in which race has been ignored in its relationship to the composing process and how race takes the form of other tropes. Studying the "deliberately dissonant" rhetorical stances of critical race theorists—namely, Patricia Williams and Derrick Bell—can help to foreground race in the discourses of composition studies and to uncover composition's colonial sensibilities. Through a rhetoric of double-consciousness, including features of irrationality and other departures from argumentation, these authors use voices that "refuse to be socialized" to reflect experiences of discrimination. Williams creates allegories, for example, to confront myths of black women—a textual act of double-consciousness that the author contends should not be manufactured in the composition classroom. More important is to track the ways race appears and disappears in "the collective unconscious" of composition, for example, in the discourses of basic writing. Critical race theory teaches us that our rhetoric inscribes students as foreigners and leaves whiteness uninvestigated. Braddock Award winner.
Ratcliffe, Krista. "Eavesdropping as Rhetorical Tactic: History, Whiteness, and Rhetoric." JAC 20.1 (2000): 87–119.
Using a composite definition formed in part by Mary Daly's method of gynocentric writing, eavesdropping can be redefined, or reconsidered, as an ethical rhetorical tactic, and as a way to study history, whiteness, and rhetoric. If we deliberately place ourselves at the edges of our own knowledge, we can overhear—without the demeaning, gossip-related connotations—and learn from others and ourselves. Further, if we shift our gaze in historical exploration from origins to usage as the focal point, we can eavesdrop on history in productive ways. Within the usage-directed framework, the past empowers us and leads to accountability. By eavesdropping on historical moments when the trope of whiteness was used in the United States, we can disengage dysfunctional realities of the past and dysfunctional idealizations of the present. Eavesdropping prompts scholars to reflect on the role of whiteness in the field and all its embodiments, and enables teachers to better equip students with a rhetorical tactic for examining the role whiteness plays in their lives.
See: Jacqueline Jones Royster, Traces of a Stream: Literacy and Social Change Among African American Woman .
See: Jacqueline Jones Royster and Jean C. Williams, "History in the Spaces Left: African American Presence and Narratives of Composition Studies" .
See: Donnalee Rubin, Gender Influences .
Schell, Eileen E. Gypsy Academics and Mother Teachers: Gender, Contingent Labor, and Writing Instruction. Portsmouth, N.H.: Boynton/Cook, 1998.
Research methodologies informed by socialist feminism—interviews, published narratives, and survey responses—document the perspectives of women who are disproportionally employed as contingent labor in writing instruction and allow intervention into the debates surrounding the erosion of faculty working conditions. Women seek or end up in nontenure-track positions for complex reasons, some of which date back to nineteenth century gender ideologies and the disciplinary formation of English studies, but none of which can be neatly explained as women's desire for a "psychic income." Critiquing the maternal ethic of care in feminist pedagogy, building coalitions to reform working conditions, and developing professional development programs are all strategies to address women's roles in the academy. Schell ends with an analysis of four proposed solutions to reform working conditions for all contingent faculty; without endorsing any of the four, Schell argues for "academic citizenship" as essential to preserving academic freedom.
Severino, Carol, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler, eds. Writing in Multicultural Settings. New York: MLA, 1997.
Twenty essays and four cross-talks engage with the challenges of multiculturalism. Four sections address Cultural and Linguistic Diversity, The Roles of Teachers and Texts, ESL Issues, and Sociocultural and Pedagogical Tensions. Essays include Bonnie Lisle and Sandra Mano, "Embracing a Multicultural Rhetoric"; Michelle Grijalva, "Teaching American Indian Students: Interpreting the Rhetorics of Silence"; Kermit E. Campbell, "Real Niggaz's Don't Die: African American Students Speaking Themselves into Their Writing"; Carol Severino, "Two Approaches to 'Cultural Text': Toward Multicultural Literacy"; Esha Niyogi De and Donna Uthus Gregory, "Decolonizing the Classroom: Freshman Composition in a Multicultural Setting"; Wendy S. Hesford, "Writing Identities: The Essence of Difference in Multicultural Classrooms"; Muriel Harris, "Cultural Conflicts in the Writing Center: Expectations and Assumptions of ESL Students"; Juan C. Guerra, "The Place of Intercultural Literacy in the Writing Classroom"; Mary Soliday, "The Politics of Difference: Toward a Pedagogy of Reciprocity"; and Kate Mangelsdorf, "Students on the Border."
Shepard, Alan, John McMillan, and Gary Tate, eds. Coming to Class: Pedagogy and the Social Class of Teachers. Portsmouth, N.H.: Boynton/Cook, 1998.
Reflective, autobiographical essays about the relationship of socioeconomic class to teaching, or how teachers' social class or experiences with class issues influence their teaching practices. Twenty-one essays, including Jim Daniels, "Class and Classroom: Going to Work"; Louise DeSalvo, "Digging Deep"; Donald Lazere, "Class Conflict in the English Profession"; Cecilia Rodrigues Milanes, "Color and Class"; Beverly J. Moss, "Intersections of Race and Class in the Academy"; Hephzibah Roskelly, "Rising and Converging: Race and Class in the South"; Patricia A. Sullivan, "Passing: A Family Dissemblance"; and Gary Tate, "Halfway Back Home."
See: Ira Shor and Caroline Pari, Critical Literacy in Action .
See: Lad Tobin. "Car Wrecks, Baseball Caps, and Man-to-Man Defense: The Personal Narratives of Adolescent Males" .
Wallace, David L., and Annissa Bell. "Being Black at a Predominantly White University." College English 61.3 (January 1999): 307–27.
Interviews with three African American men—English or education majors at a university with a 7.1 percent minority enrollment rate—challenge the results of quantitative retention studies and offer a richer understanding of minority students' experiences. The three students resisted the label of "success stories," forcing the researchers to rethink how to tell these stories without being reductive or essentialist and without reproducing the dominant culture. Three critical issues from the literature frame the narratives: an educational system that reproduces inequality; the paradoxical position of "being a victim"; and assimilation and resistance. African American men, in particular, face social adjustment problems on predominantly white college campuses which are unknown to white students, but positive contact with faculty—and opportunities to explore the consequences of assimilation or resistance—may determine which students persevere.