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History of Rhetoric and Education
Applebee, Arthur N. Tradition and Reform in the Teaching of English: A History. Urbana, Ill.: NCTE, 1974.
Since the 1600s, English curriculum design in America has reflected a struggle between traditional goals of preserving high literary culture and a standard language and progressive goals of democratic social reform. European cultural and institutional models dominated the curriculum until the late 1800s, when the first English departments appeared in American colleges. Applebee discusses English studies, in both literature and language arts, at the elementary, high school, and college levels. He also discusses the work of professional organizations in shaping curriculum. An excellent short history of American English education.
Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900–1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1987.
Discussions of writing pedagogy in textbooks and essays during the twentieth century can be divided into three groups, based on their theoretical assumptions about the nature of reality and the purpose of rhetoric. Objective theories regard external reality as empirically knowable and treat rhetoric as the medium (ideally transparent) for conveying this knowledge. Subjective theories regard truth as attainable only through inner vision and value a rhetoric that uses emotionally charged language to stimulate subjective knowing as well as to communicate one's vision to others. Transactional theories see truth as at least partly provisional, arrived at by argument and interpretation. Transactional theories, then, see rhetoric as a means of persuasion and of negotiating different interpretations of reality. Objective theories dominated writing instruction in the early years of the century, challenged only by progressive education and the communications movement. In recent years, though, subjective and transactional theories have increased in importance. See Berlin .
Berlin, James A. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth-Century American Colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1984.
Three rhetorics shaped nineteenth century writing instruction. The first, classical rhetoric, was concerned with conveying universal truths to rational beings with the aid of emotional and ethical appeals. Early in the nineteenth century, classical rhetoric was replaced by the rhetoric of the eighteenth century Scottish Common Sense philosophers, which emphasized conveying facts derived from sensory experience to beings possessing normal faculties of perception, with the aid of forms of discourse suited to divergent kinds of experience. This rhetoric dominated nineteenth century writing instruction and remains influential in the form of so-called current-traditional rhetoric. A third rhetoric, derived from Emersonian romanticism, emphasized the individual writer's vision, which creates knowledge of reality by an interpretive insight into its underlying ideal structure, and which evokes a similarly holistic response from the audience. Romantic rhetoric did not challenge eighteenth century rhetoric's dominance until the end of the nineteenth century, but it has recently inspired some of the most cogent critiques of current-traditional rhetoric.
Bolgar, R. R. The Classical Heritage and Its Beneficiaries. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1958.
A history of education from late Roman times to the fourteenth century in Byzantium, and in the West, to early medieval education in Ireland, England, and France, Scholasticism, and classical education in the Renaissance. Bolgar points out the ways scholars selected and interpreted classical texts and analyzes the political motives for their choices and views.
Brereton, John C., ed. The Origins of Composition Studies in the American College, 1875–1925: A Documentary History. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1995.
A number of histories of composition have focused on the formative years of the discipline, around the turn of the twentieth century. The major original documents from this critical period have, however, been difficult to access. Having many of them together in this volume makes it possible to see their self-consciousness about theoretical choices, their rhetorical sophistication, and their diversity. The documents are in five sets: Harvard's program from 1870–1900, with course descriptions, reports from the composition committee, and reflections by Adams Sherman Hill and Barrett Wendell; the new writing curriculum from 1895–1915, with essays by John Genung, program descriptions from a dozen representative institutions, and reports from the MLA's pedagogical section; the attack on Harvard, with essays on teaching composition by Gertrude Buck, Lane Cooper, Thomas Lounsbury, and others; textbooks, with excerpts from sixteen texts by Hill, Genung, Wendell, Scott, Cooper, Strunk, and others; and essay writing, with a wide selection of articles, textbook extracts, sample admission essays, and course materials. Includes a substantial introductory history by Brereton and, as a concluding chapter, Warner Taylor's National Survey of Conditions in Freshman English of 1929.
Brereton, John, ed. Traditions of Inquiry. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1985.
Eight essays assess the contributions of important teachers of writing: Wallace Douglas, "Barrett Wendell"; Donald C. Stewart, "Fred Newton Scott"; Ann E. Berthoff, "I. A. Richards"; John Brereton, "Sterling Andrus Leonard"; William F. Irmscher, "Kenneth Burke"; Walker Gibson, "Theodore Baird"; Richard Lloyd-Jones, "Richard Braddock"; and Robert Lyons, "Mina Shaughnessy."
Bridenthal, Renate, Claudia Koonz, and Susan Stuard, eds. Becoming Visible: Women in European History. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.
Twenty essays debunk myths about women's nonparticipation in history and consider how these myths arose and shaped European culture. An excellent introduction to women's history and education from the times of European tribal peoples, ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome to the present day.
Brody, Miriam. Manly Writing: Gender, Rhetoric, and the Rise of Composition. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1993.
In the Western rhetorical tradition, good writing has typically been described in terms of masculine virtues: it is coherent, clear, forceful, trustworthy, and true. Bad writing has been characterized in terms of vices usually associated with women: it is confused, overly ornamented, timid, and obscure or deliberately deceitful. Good writing has often openly been called "manly," while bad writing has been labeled "effeminate." Yet scholarship has left this gendering of evaluative terms largely unexamined. Brody traces its origins to Quintilian and argues that its status was assured by the condemnation of elaborate rhetoric promulgated by the British Royal Society in the late 1600s. Eighteenth century theorists of rhetoric such as Adam Smith and Hugh Blair made these gendered distinctions into pedagogical commonplaces. Brody tracks them into nineteenth century American composition texts and finally into the work of twentieth century composition scholar Peter Elbow.
Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs. Man Cannot Speak for Her, Volume I: A Critical Study of Early Feminist Rhetoric. Westport, Conn., and New York: Praeger/Greenwood Press, 1989.
Nineteenth century women had to struggle for their very right to speak in public against age-old prohibitions, largely religiously based. They argued for one moral law governing both men and women, a law that compelled their activism on behalf of abolition and African American rights, women's suffrage, temperance, and more. They learned how to address male audiences, emphasizing either that men and women were essentially morally and intellectually equal or that women possessed superior spiritual insight that required they benefit society with their political participation. In the latter part of the century, women's efforts concentrated on winning the vote—not without increasing tensions between white and black activists. Among the women rhetors with whom Campbell illustrates this groundbreaking study are Sarah and Angelina Grimké, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Ida B. Wells, and Mary Church Terrell. Volume II of Campbell's study collects representative speeches by these and other nineteenth century women rhetors.
Clark, Gregory, and S. Michael Halloran, eds. Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1993.
Eleven original essays trace and analyze the development of American rhetoric from neoclassical oratorical forms that focused on civic matters to rhetorics that reflected a growing individualism and professionalism. Essays include an introduction by Clark and Halloran; Ronald F. Reid on Edward Everett and neoclassical oratory; Gregory Clark on Timothy Dwight; P. Joy Rouse on Margaret Fuller; Nan Johnson on elocution and the private learner; Nicole Tonkovich on Godey's Lady's Book; and Catherine Peaden on Jane Addams.
Conley, Thomas M. Rhetoric in the European Tradition. New York: Longman, 1990.
Rhetoric has been defined somewhat differently in different ages, reflecting the needs—and particularly the crises—of the times. Greek notions of rhetoric reflect several different views of nature and beliefs about the ends of rhetoric. The four basic Greek models, which see rhetoric as variously manipulative or consensus seeking (the Sophistic versions) or dialectical (in Plato) or problematic (in Aristotle) persist throughout the history of rhetoric, one or another dominating at different times. Conley traces the dominant theories from Greek to modern times, focusing on schools and individual rhetorical theorists, giving most attention to those who exerted the greatest influence on their own contemporaries and on later thinkers, and setting each in the historical and political context that seems to account for the nature of the rhetorical model. Conley's purpose is to provide the background material needed to comprehend the major texts themselves, as well as to reorder our idea of which texts and figures are truly the major ones.
Connors, Robert J. Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.
The period from about 1760 to 1960 was significant in the history of rhetoric for the growth of theory and pedagogy that focused on written rhetoric to be used by newly expanding professional and managerial classes, a kind of rhetoric once called "current-traditional." Before the Civil War, it tended to combine instruction in oral and written rhetoric and to be taught in small classes or by tutorial. After the Civil War, as new state universities and new opportunities for higher education for women greatly enlarged and diversified the school population, class size grew and textbooks became increasingly important in defining the curriculum. By the early twentieth century, instruction in composition-rhetoric was largely institutionalized in the required multisection first-year programs known today and dominated by textbooks that inculcated formal and mechanical correctness. Composition-rhetoric had lost status as a discipline, courses were taught by academic underlings, and research on writing had virtually ceased. Connors organizes his analysis of these developments thematically, focusing on the influences of changing gender roles and increasing coeducation, textbooks and the emphasis on mechanical correctness, new standards of professionalism and licensure, and the teaching of discourse taxonomies, theories of style, types of assignments, and invention procedures.
Connors, Robert J. "The Erasure of the Sentence." CCC 52 (September 2001): 96–128.
Sentence-based pedagogies of the 1960s and 1970s have been completely elided within contemporary composition studies despite the evidence that they did work to improve student writing. Three sentence-based rhetorics of the New Rhetoric were the generative rhetoric of Francis Christensen, imitation exercises, and sentence-combining. The first full-scale empirical study of the Christensen system did demonstrate statistically significant classroom results; imitation was also tested and determined successful in helping writers to internalize sentence structures and design. Kellogg Hunt's work on syntactic maturity and his concept of the T-unit paved the way for important experiments on sentence-combining, with confident results that sentence-combining exercises improved both syntactic maturity as well as perceived quality of writing in general. Reasons for the erasure of the sentence and the devaluation of sentence rhetorics can be linked to anti-formalism, anti-behaviorism, and anti-empiricism, and to the changing demographics of composition studies as it became a subfield of English.
Connors, Robert J. "The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse." CCC 32 (December 1981): 444–63.
This survey of the most popular rhetoric textbooks used in American colleges since the early 1800s shows that, until the 1950s, the dominant method of writing instruction was imitation of models of the modes of discourse—narration, description, exposition, and argument. In the 1950s, self-expression and audience models challenged the older method. Connors traces the influence of Bain, Hill, Scott, Genung, the CCCC, and others. Braddock Award winner.
Connors, Robert J., Lisa S. Ede, and Andrea A. Lunsford, eds. Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1984.
In this festschrift for Edward P.J. Corbett, seventeen contributors discuss the importance of classical rhetoric to modern composition studies. Essays include Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede, and Andrea A. Lunsford, "The Revival of Rhetoric in America"; James L. Golden, "Plato Revisited: A Theory of Discourse for All Seasons"; James L. Kinneavy, "Translating Theory into Practice in Teaching Composition: A Historical View and a Contemporary View"; James C. Raymond, "Enthymemes, Examples, and Rhetorical Method"; John T. Gage, "An Adequate Epistemology for Composition: Classical and Modern Perspectives"; and S. Michael Halloran and Annette Norris Bradford, "Figures of Speech in the Rhetoric of Science and Technology." Also includes a bibliography of works by Corbett. Mina P. Shaughnessy Prize cowinner.
Corbett, Edward P.J., and Robert J. Connors. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. 1965; 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999.
Training in classical rhetoric can help modern students understand public persuasive discourse while they discover the educational tradition that has shaped Western culture for two thousand years. Chapters on discovery of arguments, arrangement of material, and style explain logic, the types of appeal, the topics, resources for invention, types of refutation, schemes, and tropes, illustrated by modern essays and speeches. The final chapter is a brief history of rhetoric. A comprehensive introduction to classical rhetorical theory and practice. For the fourth edition, Corbett is joined by Connors, who expands and updates the chapter on the history of rhetoric and contributes a new chapter on the progymnasmata, the sequence of prose composition exercises employed in classical Greek rhetorical education.
Covino, William A. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1988.
Conventional histories of rhetoric depict its major texts as sets of prescriptions for constructing sentences, organizing speeches, and (amorally) manipulating audiences. In contrast, a revisionist history could see Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero as describing and performing a rhetoric that explores ambiguities. From this perspective, an alternative tradition might be traced through Montaigne, Vico, Hume, Byron, and De Quincey, a tradition of rhetoric used to inquire into uncertain questions from multiple viewpoints while remaining open to any stylistic innovations that facilitate such explorations. This rhetoric, an "art of wondering," is particularly appropriate to the postmodern epistemological orientation of Burke, Derrida, Feyerabend, and Geertz. It fosters tolerance and interdependence by keeping the exploratory conversation going.
Covino, William A., and David A. Jolliffe. Rhetoric: Concepts, Definitions, Boundaries. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995.
An anthology offering information and selections in nearly every area of rhetoric. "Part I: An Introduction to Rhetoric" defines the field in a few brief chapters. "Part II: Glossary of Major Concepts, Historical Periods, and Rhetors" is a small encyclopedia with sixty-eight one-page entries. "Part III: Perspectives on the History and Theory of Rhetoric" is an anthology of fifteen essays by well-known scholars chiefly on major themes in the history of the field. "Part IV: The Contents of Rhetoric" is an anthology of essays by authors in a wide range of fields, with three to five essays in each of the following categories: Rhetoric and Cultural Studies; Rhetoric and Non-Western Culture; Rhetoric, Feminism, and Gender Studies; Rhetoric and Philosophy; Rhetoric and the Arts; Rhetoric and Literary Criticism; Rhetoric and Science; Rhetoric and Linguistics; Rhetoric and Education; Rhetoric and Literacy; Rhetoric and Composition; Rhetoric and Technology; and Rhetoric and Oratory. Includes an index.
Crowley, Sharon. The Methodical Memory: Invention in Current-
Traditional Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1990.
Current-traditional rhetoric, until recently the dominant approach in American schools, developed in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when rhetoricians like George Campbell and Richard Whately rejected classical rhetoric's invention schemes. To discover arguments, they claimed, the writer had merely to investigate the workings of his or her own mind, for all minds worked alike. In this model of invention, the individual authorial mind was privileged over community wisdom, and the written text was regarded as a record of the mind's operations. Clarity and logic were the goal. Pedagogy based on this model emphasized the formal features of texts—correctness and logical organization, for example—that presumably reflected the well-ordered mind at work. The metaphysical principles, supposedly universal, on which this pedagogy is based make it inherently conservative and insensitive to cultural difference. A preferable rhetoric and pedagogy is one that values difference and the diversity of communal treasures as archives for invention.
de Romilly, Jacqueline. Great Sophists in Periclean Athens. 1988. Trans. Janet Lloyd. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
The greatest Sophists were Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, and Thrasymachus. Before their advent in the fifth century B.C.E., Athenian education focused on athletics and music, and aimed to cultivate only the well-born. The Sophists became famous as teachers of public speaking, who would impart successful techniques to anyone who could pay their fees, and they emphasized intellectual development. Under their influence, the scientific study of nature began, and philosophy turned its attention from cosmogony to human action, which likewise became the focus of history, drama, and art. The gods, oracles, and the supernatural generally diminished in importance. The Sophists promoted cultural toleration and Panhellenism. They argued that human societies were held together by man-made laws that people could choose to break, rather than by divine decrees of justice that compelled obedience. Although this view could lead (as in Protagoras) to a sort of social contract theory of human society, the Sophists were attacked for encouraging impiety and lawless behavior. Nevertheless, their ideas formed the foundation of Western philosophy and education.
Donawerth, Jane. "Conversation and the Boundaries of Public Discourse in Rhetorical Theory by Renaissance Women." Rhetorica 16 (Spring 1998): 181–99.
Madeleine de Scudéry, Margaret Cavendish, Margaret Fell, and Mary Astell appropriated classical rhetorical theory for their own purposes. Barred by their sex from the public practice of rhetoric and from exercising verbal power openly, each in her own way developed the supposedly private genre of conversation as a women's rhetorical venue, where influence on public events could be exercised indirectly. Donawerth argues that although recommending conversation to women as an appropriate rhetorical sphere paid lip service to existing restrictions on women's public action, it did not relegate women to a realm of powerlessness. They had the opportunity to influence public events, however indirectly—indeed, these women were so influential that their conversation, with its public implications, can hardly be considered a "private" genre. De Scudéry, Cavendish, and Astell were well connected among the ruling nobility of France (de Scudéry) and England—Cavendish herself was a duchess—and Fell was a noted Protestant reformer, one of the founders of the Society of Friends (Quakers).
Donawerth, Jane, ed. Rhetorical Theory by Women before 1900: An Anthology. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
Presents a broad selection of women rhetorical theorists before 1900. Following an introduction that outlines a history of rhetorical theory by women, chapters offer biographical information and excerpts from women who wrote conduct books, composition and rhetoric textbooks, or about a variety of communication arts: conversation, letter writing, elocution, public speaking, or the Delsarte method. Included are Aspasia, Pan Chao, Sei Shonagon, Bathsua Makin, Mary Astell, Maria Edgeworth, Lydia Sigourney, Hallie Quinn Brown, Genevieve Stebbins, Jennie Willing, Sara Lockwood, Anna Morgan, Mary Augusta Jordan, and ten others.
Glenn, Cheryl. Rhetoric Retold: Regendering the Tradition from Antiquity through the Renaissance. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1997.
The traditional image of rhetorical practice depicts men speaking in public while women remain silent at home. Recent feminist scholarship has disrupted this traditional image by arguing that it does not represent all possible instances of rhetoric in use. Thus traditional historiography has been undermined, while female rhetorical figures have been recovered for study and new venues of rhetorical practice, where women participate actively, have been explored. Efforts to understand why and how women have been excluded from the rhetorical tradition must proceed in tandem with work that studies their rhetorical contributions. This scholarly process defines Glenn's project here. Areas of study include Sappho, Aspasia, and Diotima of classical Greece; ancient Roman women such as Cornelia; medieval mystics Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe; and Renaissance women including Elizabeth I, Protestant intellectual Margaret More Roper, and Protestant martyr Anne Askew. Glenn situates these women in the political and cultural climate of their times, and critically analyzes previous scholarship that has highlighted, or more likely, neglected their rhetorical contributions.
Halloran, S. Michael. "Rhetoric in the American College Curriculum: The Decline of Public Discourse." PRE/TEXT 3 (Fall 1983). Rpt. in Vitanza .
Classical rhetoric emphasizes effective communication about public problems. Seventeenth century theories of rhetoric in American colleges led away from such public discourse by assigning argument to the realm of logic and retaining only "pleasing expression" in rhetoric, as well as by ignoring vernacular English in favor of Greek and Latin. In the eighteenth century, a more "classical" conception of rhetoric recovered invention, arrangement, and audience, and English became the language of formal academic disputation, which dealt more often with public concerns. In the nineteenth century, emphasis shifted to written products, to the "modes" of discourse, and to correctness, and away from invention and public discourse. These changes were closely related to the dominance of belletristic aesthetics, to the specialization of the curriculum that presented knowledge in small course-units, and to a shift in the function of education from preparation for public service to preparation for personal advancement. Many aspects of classical rhetoric are being revived, but public discourse has not yet reemerged.
Hauser, Gerard A. "Aristotle on Epideictic: The Formation of Public Morality." Rhetoric Society Quarterly 29 (Winter 1999): 5–23.
Democracy is plagued by tension between the majority of people, who may not have a clear grasp of moral issues, and the privileged minority, who see themselves as the guardians of virtue. When no strong, experienced leader can mediate this tension, the merely clever who can manipulate people's emotions may gain political influence while the community fragments. This is what happened in Athens with the rise of Demosthenes, after the rule of Pericles. Aristotle wished to rectify the situation by creating an art of rhetoric that the good person can learn so as to use it in teaching the majority what good values are, thus mitigating tension and creating political consensus. Aristotle saw, according to Hauser, that while deliberative and forensic rhetoric may teach values incidentally, by implying them as the bases for judgment, epideictic rhetoric is the most important means of teaching values. In the epideictic speech, the rhetor does not merely tell about the values that he (or she) deems most central to the community, but attempts to demonstrate them in his (or her) performance. Audiences thus witness the very possibility of virtue enacted before their eyes. Hauser closes with brief discussions of a few contemporary examples of speeches that serve this epideictic function.
Havelock, Eric A. The Literate Revolution in Greece and Its Cultural Consequences. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1982.
A revolutionary development in human thought was the Greek alphabet, around 700 B.C.E. It was the first to assign symbols to individual sounds rather than to whole words or syllables, thus greatly reducing the number of symbols to memorize, which democratized the new technology and helped it spread. Literacy, in turn, encouraged dramatic changes in human thought processes. In the earlier world of orality, both verbal style and thought processes are characterized by parataxis, the simple juxtaposition of ideas; by concrete imagery that appeals to the senses and the emotions; by ritualized references to authority—for example, in proverbs; and by an agonistic posture in disputation. In contrast, literate verbal style and thought processes are marked by hypotaxis, the subordination of one idea to another in logical hierarchies; by generalizations that appeal to reason and text-assisted memory for validation; and by a questioning attitude toward authority that encourages the disinterested criticism of ideas. These literate modes, treating language as an artifact that can be examined and molded, enabled philosophical discourse.
Hawhee, Debra. "Composition History and the Harbrace College Handbook." CCC 50.3 (February 1999): 504–23
First published in 1941 and in its twelfth edition, The Harbrace College Handbook has helped to "write" the discipline of composition and has shaped teacher and student subjectivities. Other than a few minor changes, the Harbrace has functioned as a stable force in an otherwise unstable field. The original goal of John C. Hodges' handbook was to make paper marking an easier task, determined by what errors students made in an extensive study at the University of Tennessee in the late 1920s and early 1930s. An analysis of 20,000 essays determined a need for 35 rules, in a volume small enough to fit into a coat pocket but systematic enough to liberate instructors. The student subject is defined in terms of lack or deficiency, with overt instances of infantilization and no room for experimentation. Current editions of the Harbrace continue to illustrate the disciplinary function of current-traditional rhetoric.
Hobbs, Catherine, ed. Nineteenth-Century Women Learn to Write. Charlottesville: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1995.
The thirteen essays in this collection focus on women's education: the contexts in which women acquired advanced literacy in the nineteenth century and the practices they developed as they put their literacy to use. Essays include Jane E. Rose, "Conduct Books for Women, 1830–1860: A Rationale for Women's Conduct and Domestic Role in America"; Devon A. Mihesuah, "'Let Us Strive Earnestly to Value Education Aright': Cherokee Female Seminarians as Leaders of a Changing Culture"; June Hadden Hobbs, "His Religion and Hers in Nineteenth-Century Hymnody"; Nicole Tonkovich, "Writing in Circles: Harriet Beecher Stowe, the Semi-Colon Club, and the Construction of Women's Authorship"; Shirley Wilson Logan, "Literacy as a Tool for Social Action among Nineteenth-Century African American Women"; P. Joy Rouse, "Cultural Models of Womanhood and Female Education: Practices of Colonization and Resistance"; and Sue Carter Simmons, "Radcliffe Responses to Harvard Rhetoric: 'An Absurdly Stiff Way of Thinking.'"
Horner, Winifred Bryan, ed. Historical Rhetoric: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Sources in English. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980.
Selected primary and secondary sources, divided into five areas: the classical period, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the eighteenth century, and the nineteenth century. Each chapter has an introduction, primary sources listed chronologically, and secondary sources listed alphabetically. Most entries are annotated.
Horner, Winifred Bryan, ed. The Present State of Scholarship in Historical and Contemporary Rhetoric. Rev. ed. Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 1990.
An indispensable collection of six bibliographic essays by eminent scholars in each period: Richard Leo Enos and Ann M. Blakeslee, "The Classical Period"; James J. Murphy and Martin Camargo, "The Middle Ages"; Don Paul Abbott, "The Renaissance"; Winifred Bryan Horner and Kerri Morris Barton, "The Eighteenth Century"; Donald C. Stewart, "The Nineteenth Century"; and James L. Kinneavy, "Contemporary Rhetoric." The authors also identify areas where further study is needed.
Howell, Wilbur Samuel. Eighteenth-Century British Logic and Rhetoric. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1971.
Classical rhetoric and logic remained influential throughout the eighteenth century, though challenged by the new rhetoric and logic of science. Classical logic, which came from Aristotle, aimed to deduce new truths from those already known and to communicate them to a learned audience. Classical rhetoric was of three kinds: Ciceronian rhetoric aimed to communicate truths to a popular audience; stylistic rhetoric analyzed orations and literary works; and elocutionary rhetoric, a new form, prescribed methods of delivery for public speaking, stage acting, and polite conversation. In contrast, the new logic propounded by Francis Bacon and John Locke worked inductively, testing ideas against perceived reality. The new rhetoric claimed to be a general theory of communication, learned as well as popular, advocating inductive reasoning and plain style. Adam Smith and George Campbell were its chief proponents.
Howell, Wilbur Samuel. Logic and Rhetoric in England, 1500–1700. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1956.
In Renaissance England, a persistent metaphor likened logic, the discourse of science, to a closed fist (tight and rigorous) and rhetoric, the discourse of popularized knowledge, to an open hand (loose and popular). In the early sixteenth century, rhetorical study had three patterns: the Ciceronian pattern focused on the five rhetorical arts; the stylistic pattern concerned the study of tropes and figures; and the formulary pattern was the study of models for imitation. Later in the sixteenth century, Ramism reformed dialectic and rhetoric (see "A Brief History of Rhetoric and Composition"). At the end of the seventeenth century, the Port-Royal Logic popularized Cartesian logic. Bacon's logic and rhetoric paralleled this development and led to the Royal Society's project for language reform. Howell's work is the standard history of this important period in the history of rhetoric.
Jarratt, Susan. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1991.
The Greek Sophists of the fifth century B.C.E. developed a theory and practice of socially constructed discourse, focused on the historical contingency and democratic usefulness of strategies of persuasion, and delighted in the play of language. Recovered from its denigration by Plato and Aristotle, sophism provides a good model for understanding the political effects and goals of feminist discourse and critical-education discourse today.
Johnson, Nan. Gender and Rhetorical Space in American Life, 1866–1910. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 2002.
Thousands of readers in postbellum America had the opportunity to study rhetoric only through the parlor curriculum: conduct literature, advice and etiquette manuals, and (parlor) encyclopedias, all designed to offer instruction in elocution, oratory, and composition. The influence of the parlor-rhetoric movement appears in a range of nineteenth century texts and artifacts—newspaper advertisements, letters, biographies, and autobiographies. The nineteenth century middle class parlor was a rhetorical space devoted to improving and enlarging the discourse practices and possibilities of middle class women, yet successfully marketed parlor instruction, including a common "separate-desks" motif, served to keep women in the home and to restrict their access to public rhetorical activities. Cultural interests combined to silence women in spite of their access to prestige discourses: parlor rhetorics performed ideological work in a culture desperate to restrict public rhetorical space. Women orators were judged in an era defined by cultural anxiety about women's increasing appearances at the podium. Performing gender, then, was an explicit criterion by which women orators were judged; they had to be persuasive that they had not really left the parlor at all.
Johnson, Nan. Nineteenth-Century Rhetoric in North America. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1991.
Nineteenth century rhetoric was a synthesis of classical elements (the canons of invention, arrangement, and style), belletrism (focusing on criticism and literary taste), and epistemological ideas about the relation of language and persuasion to the mental "faculties" (will, imagination, understanding, and passions). All three of these approaches developed in the eighteenth century and found a solid place in the discipline of rhetoric, in theoretical treatises as well as textbooks. The civic and cultural status of rhetoric was as yet secure in the nineteenth century: It was still seen as a significant factor in maintaining social and political order, as well as in formulating the conventions for scientific and philosophical communication. Both oratory and composition were firmly within its purview. "Nineteenth-century rhetoricians claimed for rhetoric the status of science, practical art, and civil servant. In laying this claim, they addressed and confirmed the dominant intellectual and cultural values of their era" (246).
See: James L. Kastely, Rethinking the Rhetorical Tradition .
Kates, Susan. Activist Rhetorics and American Higher Education, 1885–1937. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 2001.
Rhetoric curricula designed for specific student constituencies served the needs of disenfranchised students by making their marginalization in the larger culture a focus of course content. Educators Mary Augusta Jordan of Smith College, Hallie Quinn Brown of Wilberforce University, and Josephine Colby, Helen Norton, and Louis Budenz of Brookwood Labor College were concerned more with language and ideology than with correctness. A variety of archival materials and pedagogical artifacts distinguish activist rhetorical education from more traditional forms and demonstrate the ways in which activist rhetoric instruction has a long history in the United States—characterized by an emphasis on writing and speaking, language and identity, and service and social responsibility. Because the prospect of confronting difference in the rhetoric classroom is a more complex endeavor than most educational theorists realize, the pedagogical legacies of these activist educators should inform current controversies in composition studies.
Kennedy, George A. The Art of Persuasion in Greece. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1963.
Volume 1 of Kennedy's history of classical rhetoric (see ), the standard work on the period, treats individual rhetoricians and their works and supplies historical background. Kennedy emphasizes that Greek rhetoric was overwhelmingly an art of oral discourse. He discusses the conflict between rhetoric and philosophy, and traces the development of the great central theory of rhetoric to which all classical rhetoricians contributed, foreshadowing Greek influence on the Romans.
Kennedy, George A. The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World 300 b.c.–a.d. 300. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1972.
This is volume 2 of Kennedy's history of classical rhetoric (see ), the standard work on the period. It treats individual rhetoricians and their works in detail, supplies much historical background, and traces the fall and rise of persuasion as the main focus of rhetoric under Roman influence. Kennedy has two chapters on Cicero, two on Augustan rhetoric, one on Quintilian, and two on later Greek rhetoric.
Kennedy, George A. Classical Rhetoric and Its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1980.
Originally formulated in ancient Greece as an art, rhetoric later developed into three types. Technical rhetoric prescribed the correct forms for invention, organization of speeches, and style. Sophistic rhetoric, taught by imitation, emphasized the speaker's ethos and the magical powers of stylistic display, whereas philosophical rhetoric sought to discover truth and convey it to audiences for their good. Kennedy traces these lines of rhetorical study up to the 1700s, chiefly through summaries of the contributions of important rhetoricians.
Kimball, Bruce A. Orators and Philosophers: A History of the Idea of Liberal Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 1986.
The history of liberal education from the Middle Ages to the present can be seen as a struggle between two kinds of teacher-scholars. Orators stressed citizenship education, emphasized commonly held ("liberal") notions of the good, and valued rhetoric as a method of creating consensus on public issues. Philosophers stressed education for the pursuit of pure truth, supported education for the elite by defining "liberal" as liberation from worldly cares (hence, freedom to pursue the truth), and denigrated rhetoric in their search for a language transparent to the truth. Philosophers have come to dominate Western education through the force of science and technology, but the influence of the Orators ought to be restored.
Levin, Carole, and Patricia A. Sullivan, eds. Political Rhetoric, Power, and Renaissance Women. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1995.
The Renaissance was a time of powerful queens and also of violent invective against women in political life, much of it religiously motivated. This collection examines the political rhetoric of powerful Renaissance women, men's rhetoric directed against them, literature by male and female authors of the time that considers women as political agents, and historical evaluations of powerful Renaissance women from their own time to the present. Fifteen essays include Carole Levin and Patricia A. Sullivan, "Politics, Women's Voices, and the Renaissance: Questions and Context"; Daniel Kempton, "Christine de Pisan's Cité des Dames and Trésor de la Cité: Toward a Feminist Scriptural Practice"; Ilona Bell, "Elizabeth I—Always Her Own Free Woman"; Elizabeth Mazzola, "Expert Witnesses and Secret Subjects: Anne Askew's Examinations and Renaissance Self-Incrimination"; Arlen Feldwick, "Wits, Whigs, and Women: Domestic Politics as Anti-Whig Rhetoric in Aphra Behn's Town Comedies"; and Jane Donawerth, "The Politics of Renaissance Rhetorical Theory by Women."
Logan, Shirley Wilson. "We Are Coming": The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1999.
Although the public discourse of prominent black women was not always recorded or preserved, much was produced in the last two decades of the nineteenth century—in the nadir—when club women, church women, and educators addressed concerns of all classes. Largely trained in speaking skills in the black church and despite resistance to their activities, black women chose to participate in public discourse in ways grounded in African origins but adapted to multiple audiences and multilayered exigencies, arguing for, for example, common communities of interest. The speeches of Maria Stewart, Frances Harper, Ida Wells, Fannie Barrier Williams, Anna Julia Cooper, Victoria Earle Matthews, and others, analyzed through the new rhetorics of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca, Burke, and Bitzer, reveal strategic shifts, audience adaptations, and tactics of arrangement that achieved particular communicative aims, molded and constrained by prevailing conventions and traditions. The discourse of racial uplift, in particular, induced social action by representing it as work, and black women created, organized, and publicized a large number of public forums, firmly establishing a tradition of political activism among black women.
Logan, Shirley Wilson. With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth-Century African-American Women. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1995.
In unprecedented numbers, African American women entered public rhetorical fora in the nineteenth century to agitate for African American rights, women's rights, higher education for African Americans of both sexes, temperance, and more. They developed distinctive rhetorical strategies that responded to traditional prohibitions against their public activism on grounds of race and sex. Logan collects representative works by seven women: Maria W. Stewart, Sojourner Truth, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Anna Julia Haywood Cooper, Ida B. Wells, Fannie Barrier Williams, and Victoria Earle Matthews. Logan provides a critical summary of each woman's career, and introduces the volume with an essay that sets these rhetors in their political and cultural contexts.
Lunsford, Andrea A., ed. Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women in the Rhetorical Tradition. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1995.
Sixteen original essays examine the contribution to rhetorical theory of women such as Aspasia (Susan Jarratt and Rory Ong), Diotima (C. Jan Swearingen), Christine de Pisan (Jenny Refern), Mary Astell (Christine Mason Sutherland), Margaret Fuller (Annette Kolodny), Ida B. Wells (Jacqueline Jones Royster), Sojourner Truth (Drema R. Lipscomb), Suzanne K. Langer (Arabella Lyon), and Louise Rosenblatt (Annika Hallin).
See: Andrea A. Lunsford and Lisa S. Ede, "Classical Rhetoric, Modern Rhetoric, and Contemporary Discourse Studies" .
Marrou, H. I. A History of Education in Antiquity. Trans. George Lamb. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1956.
The standard introduction to the subject. Marrou describes the origins of classical education from Homer to Isocrates and traces primary, secondary, and postsecondary education from Greek and Roman times to early Christian schooling and Byzantine and monastic education.
Mattingly, Carol. Well-Tempered Women: Nineteenth-Century Temperance Rhetoric. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1998.
The temperance movement was the largest political movement of women in the nineteenth century. It began as a struggle against the sale of alcohol, which was heavily implicated in the impoverishment and physical abuse of women and children by addicted men. Under the leadership of Frances Willard, president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) in the latter part of the century, temperance activism enlarged to embrace other social reform issues, such as improved treatment of prostitutes and women criminals, improved availability of day care for working mothers, unionized labor contracts for both women and men, and women's suffrage. In this mass movement, women took the speaker's platform and published their opinions in unprecedented numbers, in part due to the WCTU's deliberate policy of encouraging women to find their public voices. Mattingly argues that the temperance movement did more than any other force to educate nineteenth century women in rhetorical practices. She provides richly detailed documentation of women's temperance rhetoric, studies temperance fiction, and explores racial tensions within the movement.
Miller, Thomas P. The Formation of College English: Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in the British Cultural Provinces. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.
In the middle of the eighteenth century, the first professorships to teach composition, rhetoric, and literature in English were founded in British universities, primarily in schools in the cultural provinces of Scotland and Ireland and in Dissenters' academies in England. The whole discipline of English studies has developed from these professorships, which were originally established to focus on a new kind of instruction in rhetoric. While Ciceronian rhetoric, deductive logic, and prescriptive grammar—essentially a classicist approach—persisted at Oxford and Cambridge, a utilitarian plain style of rhetoric was taught at these schools, along with inductive logic and grammar based in usage. The new approaches emerged where they did because these were the schools in which previously excluded groups were entering the academy and seeking language training that would facilitate their upward mobility. Parallel to this trend was an unprecedented effort to codify the English that they would learn, through the publication of record numbers of dictionaries and grammar books. Instruction in rhetoric and in moral philosophy were linked by the aim of both to direct people's actions. The new professors of rhetoric sought to make moral philosophy more empirical by developing the social sciences, such as economics and political science; they sought to make rhetoric similarly scientific with an emphasis on psychology. Eventually, the curriculum of higher education was divided between the arts and the sciences. Rhetoric was still too engaged in the contingencies of persuasion to become either fully scientific or aesthetically focused. Hence it tended to fall out of the new curriculum, while English studies was reduced to the aesthetic appreciation of nonutilitarian texts, or what is now called "literature."
See: Roxanne Mountford, "On Gender and Rhetorical Space" .
Murphy, James J., ed. Renaissance Eloquence: Studies in the Theory and Practice of Renaissance Rhetoric. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1983.
Many leading scholars in Renaissance rhetoric are represented in this collection of twenty-three essays that surveys the field, including Paul Oskar Kristeller, "Rhetoric in Medieval and Renaissance Culture"; James J. Murphy, "One Thousand Neglected Authors: The Scope and Importance of Renaissance Rhetoric"; John Monfasani, "The Byzantine Rhetorical Tradition and the Renaissance"; Nancy Struever, "Lorenzo Valla: Humanist Rhetoric and the Critique of the Classical Languages of Morality"; John W. O'Malley, "Content and Rhetorical Forms in Sixteenth-Century Treatises on Preaching"; Richard J. Schoeck, "Lawyers and Rhetoric in Sixteenth-Century England"; Judith Rice Henderson, "Erasmus on the Art of Letter-Writing"; Thomas O. Sloane, "Reading Milton Rhetorically"; and Brian Vickers, "'The Power of Persuasion': Images of the Orator, Elyot to Shakespeare."
Murphy, James J. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1974.
Saint Augustine turned the prescriptive Aristotelian and Ciceronian rhetorics to Christian use by arguing that rhetoric is neither empty nor merely ornamental if it is filled with religious truth and dedicated to saving souls. Medieval rhetoricians, following Augustine, made the art of preaching one of the three chief rhetorical genres. The others were letter writing, devoted to political ends, and prescriptive grammar, which was studied by writing and analyzing poetry. Prescriptive rhetoric, based on fragmentary knowledge of classical texts, declined after the rediscovery in the 1400s of complete copies of Quintilian's Institutio and Cicero's De Oratore.
Murphy, James J., ed. The Rhetorical Tradition and Modern Writing. New York: MLA, 1982.
Twelve essays treat the place of classical, eighteenth century, and nineteenth century rhetoric in the modern curriculum and analyze the work of Cicero, John Locke, Alexander Bain, and other premodern rhetoricians. Essays include James J. Murphy, "Rhetorical History as a Guide to the Salvation of American Reading and Writing: A Plea for Curricular Courage"; James L. Kinneavy, "Restoring the Humanities: The Return of Rhetoric from Exile"; Susan Miller, "Classical Practice and Contemporary Basics"; S. Michael Halloran and Merrill D. Whitburn, "Ciceronian Rhetoric and the Rise of Science: The Plain Style Reconsidered"; Winifred Bryan Horner, "Rhetoric in the Liberal Arts: Nineteenth-Century Scottish Universities"; and Donald C. Stewart, "Two Model Teachers and the Harvardization of English Departments."
Murphy, James J., ed. A Short History of Writing Instruction from Ancient Greece to Twentieth Century America. Davis, Calif.: Hermagoras Press, 1990.
Seven essays focus on the contributions of rhetoricians to writing instruction: Kathleen Welch, "Writing Instruction in Ancient Athens After 450 b.c."; James J. Murphy, "Roman Writing Instruction as Described in Quintilian"; Marjorie Woods, "The Teaching of Writing in Medieval Europe"; Don Paul Abbott, "Rhetoric and Writing in Renaissance Europe and England"; Winifred Bryan Horner, "Writing Instruction in Great Britain: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries"; S. Michael Halloran, "From Rhetoric to Composition: The Teaching of Writing in America to 1900"; and James A. Berlin, "Writing Instruction in School and College English, 1890–1985." Includes glossary and bibliography.
Murphy, James J., ed. A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Davis, Calif.: Hermagoras Press, 1983.
Six essays provide an introductory overview of rhetoric in Greek and Roman culture and include summaries of major works: James J. Murphy, "The Origins and Early Development of Rhetoric"; Forbes I. Hill, "The Rhetoric of Aristotle"; James J. Murphy, "The Age of Codification: Hermagoras and the Pseudo-Ciceronian Rhetorica ad Herennium"; Donovan J. Ochs, "Cicero's Rhetorical Theory"; Prentice A. Meador, Jr., "Quintilian and the Institutio Oratoria"; James J. Murphy, "The End of the Ancient World: The Second Sophistic and Saint Augustine." Also includes a basic bibliography on classical rhetoric compiled by Michael C. Leff.
See: Jasper Neel, Plato, Derrida, and Writing .
North, Stephen M. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair, N.J.: Boynton/Cook, 1987.
Composition is an interdisciplinary field comprising three methodological communities: first, the practitioners, who generate lore about writing instruction through classroom experience; second, the scholars, whose research produces histories and philosophical works; and third, the researchers, whose empirical methods include protocol analysis and ethnography. At present, scholars and researchers are battling for control of the field and for the allegiance of the practitioners—whose status has been downgraded by the implication that they should adopt one or the other of these ways of making knowledge. North summarizes and critiques examples of work in each of the communities.
Ong, Walter J., S.J. Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue. 1958. Rpt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1974.
Although the works of Peter Ramus decisively changed rhetoric, he was heavily influenced by his scholastic predecessors. Like them, he attempted to describe a universal method for systematizing knowledge into academic disciplines that could be easily taught to the young boys who attended the university. Unlike them, Ramus lived in a world in which printed texts were increasingly available. He came to conceive of knowledge as broken up into "fields" (like the visual field of the printed page), composed of discrete bits of information (like printed letters), and hence susceptible to quantification. Ramus "reformed" classical rhetoric by moving invention and arrangement to the realm of dialectic and by treating dialectic as the arranging of bits of information in dichotomies, which presumably convince by virtue of their logical structure alone. Ramus dropped memory and delivery because they are not necessary for print communication. Rhetoric itself has to do only with style, and, because the dichotomies of Ramist dialectic convey rational truth, rhetoric need be used only when a recalcitrant audience required ornamentation of the truth to induce belief. Ramus's view of the quantifiable nature of knowledge contributed to the development of empirical scientific method, and his plain style seemed the appropriately neutral medium for scientific study. Ong argues that Ramus himself cared little about advancing knowledge of the external world or rescuing language from the "distortions" of rhetorical ornamentation.
Paine, Charles. The Resistant Writer: Rhetoric as Immunity, 1850 to the Present. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1999.
An inoculation and resistance model of education, particularly strong in the nineteenth century and today, serves to maintain individuality and the status quo. While most composition histories have focused on villainous forebears and our inheritance of current traditional practices, reading composition history through competing cultural institutions complicates historiography and questions the dominant portrayal of nineteenth century composition instruction as being in league with capitalism and business. Rather than demonstrating that connections exist between composition instruction and larger cultural issues, work must be done to investigate how larger cultural issues have actually transformed composition theory and practice. The rhetorical theories of Edward T. Channing and Adams Sherman Hill responded to cultural imperatives similar to those today. Channing tried to help students distance themselves from mainstream culture while indoctrinating them into the university. Hill produced his rhetorical theory during an era of intense animosity between intellectuals and the powerful rise of mass culture, particularly the newspaper industry. Hill's easy-to-manage rhetorical assignments allowed the construction of a stable self—critical and aloof and able to resist cultural norms. Rather than designing writing courses to shore up students' defenses, composition instructors should teach students to live in conflict, not overcome it.
See: Krista Ratcliffe, Anglo-American Feminist Challenges to the Rhetorical Traditions .
Peterson, Carla. "Doers of the Word": African-American Women Speakers and Writers in the North (1830–1880). New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995.
The cultural work of nineteenth century black women activists was produced from social, psychological, and geographical positions of marginality that shifted as these women diversified their rhetorical approaches. They had to contend with silencing and exploitation of the body that emerged not only from the dominant white culture but also from their home communities. Often fortified by a sense of divine mission, they persevered and accomplished much for racial uplift. Among the speakers and writers Peterson studies are Sojourner Truth, Maria Stewart, Jarena Lee, Harriet A. Jacobs, and Frances Ellen Watkins Harper.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones and Jean C. Williams. "History in the Spaces Left: African American Presence and Narratives of Composition Studies." CCC 50.4 (June 1999): 563–84.
Several historical accounts of composition studies have established national parameters for the field but none accounts for the seventeen historically African American colleges and universities established in the 1890s. Historians have not typically been pushed to specify their own ideological locations and the resulting limitations to their gaze; their reliance on primary texts can block their perception of the simultaneous existence of multiple viewpoints. Student-centered narratives of composition often ignore the long-standing presence of African Americans in arenas of higher education and their successes as insiders, resulting in a conflation of ethnicity, otherness, and basic writing, and making race a rare focal point for scholars' analyses. Setting the gaze toward the nineteenth century allows for a fuller understanding of African American students as active participants in higher education. Several historical moments, such as the establishment of Howard University in 1867, created academic spaces for intellectual work in the African American community; recovering the contributions of African American teachers and scholars begins by acknowledging the achievements of Alain Locke, Hallie Quinn Brown, and Hugh M. Gloster. As official narratives take on social, political, and cultural consequences, resisting these narratives invites a search for better interpretive frames and different methodologies that will account more richly for the participation of historically suppressed groups.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones. Traces of a Stream: Literacy and Social Change Among African American Women. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 2000.
Acts of literacy are rhetorical events that embody an individual vision and voice but are also culturally produced and often enacted in the interest of social change, as illustrated by the essaying practices of African American women writers. Tracing the development of rhetorical prowess in public domains and analyzing essays of social change begins at the intersections of context, ethos formation, and rhetorical action—and requires the tools of advocacy and activism. Although they are not monolithic in personhood or in literate practices, African American women use language and literacy as a tool to authorize, entitle, and empower themselves and others, with characteristic reliance upon cooperative practices and commitment to social responsibility. Separated from their original homelands, these women brought a sense of ancestral connection, one that translated into their uses of written language. Best analyzed in a kaleidoscopic view of the rhetorical process, the literate forms of African American women show evidence of a blurring of literacy and orality, with features that are inclusive, healing, and generative. Despite a litany of obstacles, these women persevered to achieve higher education at such institutions as Oberlin College, where they received formal rhetorical training, participated in literary clubs, and went on to organize cooperative community activities or reform movements. African American women wrote for the periodical press, critical mechanisms for participating in public discourse, and spoke before varied audiences; they operated in both religious and secular contexts. Organized by three views, rhetorical, historical, and ideological, Royster outlines a paradigm for Afrafeminist scholarship and argues, in part, "people who do intellectual work need to understand their intellectual ancestry" (265). Includes a photographic essay and a thematic bibliography.
Rudolph, Frederick. Curriculum: A History of the American Undergraduate Course of Study since 1636. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1977.
An invaluable history of the establishment and development of colleges in the United States, their curricula, student populations, purposes for education and certification, and the rationale in each period and at key colleges for determining what counts as knowledge.
Russell, David R. "Romantics on Writing: Liberal Culture and the Abolition of Composition Courses." Rhetoric Review 6 (Spring 1988): 132–48.
The required composition course has, during its hundred-year history, frequently been attacked by proponents of Arnoldian "liberal culture," who advocate an elitist view of education and oppose the democratic, professional, and scientific character of the modern university. In the view of Thomas Lounsbury, Oscar James Campbell, and others, writing is a creative act that cannot be taught; the required composition course is stultifying to students, instructors, and the English department as a whole; and writing ability should therefore be regarded as an admission criterion, not a college course. The combination of composition with an introduction to literature in many programs reflects the influence of the liberal-culture argument. In recent times, the assumptions underlying calls for abolition of the composition course persist in conflicts over the status of composition in English departments, in expressivist composition theories, and in policy decisions about admissions standards.
Russell, David R. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870–1990: A Curricular History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1991.
In a long flirtation with writing instruction in the disciplines, universities have begun hundreds of programs to teach writing across the curriculum in the twentieth century, all of which became marginalized. Writing was not integrated in content learning, and professors continued to resist teaching writing and reading papers. These failures reflect the persistent attitude that writing is a skill, a form of recorded speech, that writing instruction is remediation, and that the academy is a single discourse community. They also reflect the myth of transcience, the belief that students' inability to write is a problem that will soon, or eventually, be solved. The structure of the university makes cross-disciplinary conversation unproductive, hence the fantasy that the academy is a single discourse community, for to acknowledge the diversity of discourse conventions would require more attention to one's own conventions and present a clear necessity to teach them. General education reforms reinforced this delusion, as well as the myth of transcience, by calling for a unified society and explicitly remedial writing courses. Writing in the disciplines is much more difficult to learn under these conditions, which contributes to the perceived high status of the disciplines, but also opposes social equity by creating a hurdle that many students cannot vault. Writing across the curriculum has been more influential since 1970, but the same forces of resistance are still at work.
Salvatori, Mariolina Rizzi, ed. Pedagogy: Disturbing History, 1819–1929. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1996.
"Pedagogy" was a disputed term throughout the nineteenth century in Europe and the United States. Its meaning moved along a spectrum defining it, at one extreme, as useless pedantry and, at the other, as the crucial knowledge required of responsible teachers. But often, as the concept of pedagogy was rehabilitated, it also had to be renamed "education." Often at issue was whether pedagogy was an art, proceeding primarily by inspiration, or a science, subject to empirical investigation and codification in rules. Important sites of this struggle were the new normal schools for teachers that emerged in the 1840s and the university departments of education that came of age in the 1880s and 1890s. Among the disputants of these contested meanings were the authors of dictionaries and encyclopedias, women's conduct book writers, philosophers of education, professors of education, and teachers. In this volume, Salvatori collects primary documents from all these sources and provides historical analysis of the nuances of their arguments. Ultimately, she aims to show that pedagogy does have a history and that it does not deserve the lack of respect it often incurs in the academy today.
Schultz, Lucille M. The Young Composers: Composition's Beginnings in Nineteenth-Century Schools. Studies in Writing and Rhetoric Series. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. Press, 1999.
Composition historians have overlooked the importance of nineteenth century first books, or those written for children in the primary grades, and the pedagogical innovation that these books suggest. As the concept of childhood changed, so did the role of writing in a child's education; most significantly, students practiced writing from lived experience. Major changes in school-based language instruction can be traced to reform educator Johann Pestalozzi, whose object-centered teaching influenced Frost's Easy Exercises. Illustrations in these first books served both as writing prompts and as moral lessons. Evidence of extracurricular writing, such as letters and memoirs, suggests that current-traditional pedagogy did not rule all literacy instruction in the mid- and late century. Schultz considers the experience-based essay as the most significant innovation of these nineteenth century writing classrooms.
Sloane, Thomas O. On the Contrary: The Protocol of Traditional Rhetoric. Washington, D.C.: Catholic Univ. of America Press, 1997.
Practice in arguing both sides of a question, traced here to recommendations in Cicero's De oratore, has been a mainstay of traditional rhetorical education in the West since classical times. It has been the basic method of rhetorical invention, the process whereby one finds ideas for one's discourse. Familiarity with this pedagogy aids in understanding two great Renaissance texts, the De copia of Desiderius Erasmus and the Discourse on Usury of Thomas Wilson. Sloane argues that what he calls a "contrarian" pedagogy would also assist modern students to learn critical thinking and rhetorical invention. He urges that this method not be dismissed as too agonistic and masculine in orientation. While the process does require putting ideas into opposition with each other, Sloane argues that it is in fact "maieutic," a sort of mental midwifery that assists at the birth of well-examined ideas in the minds of one's readers or hearers. Sloane announces that his scholarly method here is "antiquarian," devoted to digging up details from the past that are entertaining as well as relevant to his argument but that have as their ultimate purpose the revelation of the intellectual poverty and lack of humanity in education today, when compared with traditional instruction in rhetoric.
Sutherland, Christine Mason, and Rebecca Sutcliffe, eds. The Changing Tradition: Women in the History of Rhetoric. Calgary: Univ. of Calgary Press, 1999.
Seventeen essays (one printed in French with a translation) by scholars from seven countries who attended the 1997 annual conference of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric expand traditional definitions of rhetoric by considering the rhetorical activities of women who have been excluded from the tradition or who have developed practices parallel to it. The essays look at images of rhetorical women in myth and fiction as well as historical figures, treat women's reception as well as production of rhetoric, and more. They include Christine Mason Sutherland, "Women in the History of Rhetoric: The Past and the Future"; C. Jan Swearingen, "Plato's Women: Alternative Embodiments of Rhetoric"; Vicki Collins, "Account of the Experience of Hester Ann Rogers: Rhetorical Functions of a Methodist Mystic's Journal"; John Ward, "Women and Latin Rhetoric from Hrotsvit to Hildegard"; Erin Herberg, "Mary Astell's Rhetorical Theory: A Woman's Viewpoint"; Suzanne Bordelon, "Resisting Decline Stories: Gertrude Buck's Democratic Theory of Rhetoric"; and Lynette Hunter, "Feminist Thoughts on Rhetoric."
Swearingen, C. Jan. Rhetoric and Irony: Western Literacy and Western Lies. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1991.
Is language a lie, a fiction capable of creating only fictive meanings and identities? Pre-Platonic philosophers resisted the idea that language was deceptive and began to develop a writing-based technical rhetoric to anatomize arguments and cast them in forms reflecting truth. Plato tried to scuttle this movement, proposing instead that only honest dialogue could attain truth. Plato condemned the self-consciously manipulative rhetor as an "eiron," regarding the manipulator as a liar. Technical rhetoric nevertheless triumphed with Aristotle, progenitor of the "linear-monological-grammatical-logical systems" that have dominated rhetoric in the West. Cicero tried, too, to combat technical rhetoric in favor of dialogue, an effort blocked and obscured by the loss of his mature works. Augustine criticized mendacity in language, also connected, for him, to the deceptive techniques of rhetoric, which were to be corrected by sermonic teaching and inner dialogues between self and soul. The dialogic rhetorics of Plato, Cicero, and Augustine are pertinent to our own age, when textual literacy is being challenged by new technologies and linear-logical argument forms are regarded as too restrictive and abstract.
Tuana, Nancy, ed. Feminist Interpretations of Plato. University Park: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, 1994.
In this collection of work by philosophers and classicists, six essays look at Plato's explicit views on women, and six consider Plato's use of feminine imagery in his philosophy. The first group includes Gregory Vlastos, "Was Plato a Feminist?"; Elizabeth V. Spelman, "Hairy Cobblers and Philosopher-Queens"; and Natalie Harris Bluestone, "Why Women Cannot Rule: Sexism in Plato Scholarship." Among the second group are Page duBois, "The Platonic Appropriation of Reproduction"; Andrea Nye, "Irigaray and Diotima at Plato's Symposium"; and Nancy Tuana and William Cowling, "The Presence and Absence of the Feminine in Plato's Philosophy."
Varnum, Robin. Fencing with Words: A History of Writing Instruction at Amherst College during the Era of Theodore Baird, 1938–1966. Urbana, Ill: NCTE, 1996.
In Theodore Baird's two-semester first-year writing course, he and the instructors together designed a common sequence of assignments that called on students to write from experience and to bring their work to class for discussion. Students and instructors found themselves engaged in stiff competition for the cachet of intellectual excellence, a dynamic that was intended to make students independent and reliant on only their own imaginative resources. Varnum sees this course as reflecting American ideologies of masculinity, particularly a combat-oriented ideal valorized by World War II. Although Baird never attempted to promote his approach in the profession, it has been widely influential through the teachers he trained, among them Walker Gibson, Roger Sale, and William Coles.
Wertheimer, Molly Meijer, ed. Listening to Their Voices: The Rhetorical Activities of Historical Women. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1997.
Nineteen essays both analyze and exemplify feminist rhetorical scholarship on topics ranging from classical times to the present including: Cheryl Glenn, "Locating Aspasia on the Rhetorical Map"; Barbara Warnick, "Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca's Contribution to The New Rhetoric"; Robert W. Cape, Jr., "Roman Women in the History of Rhetoric and Oratory"; Shirley Wilson Logan, "Black Women on the Speaker's Platform (1832–1899)"; Julia Dietrich, "The Visionary Rhetoric of Hildegard of Bingen"; Vicki Tolar Collins, "Women's Voices and Women's Silence in the Tradition of Early Methodism"; Jane Donawerth, "'As Becomes a Rational Woman to Speak': Madeleine de Scudéry's Rhetoric of Conversation" and "Textbooks for New Audiences: Women's Revisions of Rhetorical Theory at the Turn of the Century."
Woodward, William Harrison. Studies in Education during the Age of the Renaissance, 1400–1600. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1906.
In what is still an authoritative source for the period, Woodward describes the Quattrocento beginnings of humanist education, traces its influence in Europe by examining the careers of important educators (including Guarino, Agricola, Erasmus, Vives, and Melanchthon), examines Italian and English doctrines of courtesy, and reviews the humanist education of Elizabethan aristocrats.
Wozniak, John Michael. English Composition in Eastern Colleges, 1850–1940. Washington, D.C.: Univ. Press of America, 1978.
A detailed history of composition courses, textbooks, methods, rationales, and instructors, interwoven with an analysis of theories and purposes and a general history of institutional development.